Automatic Bitcoin Address Clustering
Jan 04, 2018
As blockchain technology expands around the world, we believe it is essential to continue studying and evaluating the technology’s potential. Our white papers and fact sheets tackle some of the most pressing questions in the blockchain community.
Automatic Bitcoin Address Clustering
Jan 04, 2018
The Bitfury Group, the world’s leading full-service Blockchain technology company, and its world-class global development team detail in this white paper a new solution to help reveal relationships between bitcoin addresses that minimizes errors in data and ensures greater accuracy in linking bitcoin addresses for criminal investigations, while also showing bitcoin users ways to protect their privacy.
On Blockchain Auditability
Nov 29, 2016
The Bitfury Group released a white paper today, titled “On Blockchain Auditability,” that explores the key properties of legitimate Blockchains, including auditability, accountability and non-repudiation. The white paper explores how Blockchain technology allows for these properties, including blockchain receipts, blockchain anchoring, and proof of work.
Shared Send Untangling in Bitcoin
Aug 24, 2016
This white paper focuses on the existing tangling techniques of “shared send” transactions and presents an approach to detect usage of mixing schemes. First, we demonstrate that a substantial part of shared send transactions could be untangled. Second, we propose a number of practically useful modifications to this challenge and we present the results of computational experiments on shared send untangling.
The whitepaper establishes a theoretical approach to shared send transaction analysis, which formulates the transaction untangling challenge in terms of the graph theory. We also describe several practically important modifications to the untangling problem. By reducing the untangling challenge to a well-known partition problem, we rigorously prove the computational complexity of shared send analysis. Our computational experiments show that detection and analysis of shared send mixers is possible in real time for the majority of Bitcoin transactions. We experimentally determine that about 2.5% of all Bitcoin transactions possess the traits of shared send transactions, and that about half of these transactions could be untangled with moderate computational resources.
Flare: An Approach to Routing in Lightning Network
Jul 07, 2016
This whitepaper is about Flare, a hybrid routing algorithm for payment routing on the Lightning Network. The paper suggests a two-phase algorithm: (1) a proactive update of the node’s routing map, which stores information about network topology, along with (2) reactive collection of information as needed when required by a Lightning Network request. This white paper is the first attempt to describe and preliminarily test an algorithmic solution for future implementation of the Lightning Network on the Bitcoin Blockchain that will allow for transaction processing scalability. The paper is a product of collaboration with co-author Olaoluwa Osuntokun, and the rest of the Lightning Network team.
4 Facts Everyone Should Know About the Blockchain
May 12, 2016
Need a quick primer on why everyone is interested in Blockchain and bitcoin technology?
Digital Assets on Public Blockchains
Mar 15, 2016
The BitFury Group's white paper, “Digital Assets on Public Blockchains,” explores how digital assets can be securely stored and transferred on the bitcoin-secured public Blockchain. A digital asset is a floating claim of a certain service or goods, ensured by the asset issuer, that is governed using computer technologies and the Internet. Throughout the compilation of this white paper, The BitFury Group found that using blockchain infrastructure for digital asset management would allow the global economy to create purely digital assets and manage them entirely online. Our white paper concludes that this allowance opens many new doors to opportunity throughout the world.
Digital asset management is one of promising applications of blockchain technology. Blockchains could provide principal disintermediation between digital asset issuers, application developers and consumers and decouple tasks related to asset management, such as issuance, transaction processing, securing users’ funds and establishing users’ identities. This paper outlines basic components of blockchain-based asset ledgers, as well as their use cases for financial services and for emerging Internet of Things and consumer-to-consumer markets. We describe existing and prospective deployment models for asset ledgers, including multi-asset blockchains, colored coin and metacoin protocols. This paper focuses primarily on Bitcoin-based services and, to a lesser degree, on public blockchains in general.
Incentive Mechanisms for Securing the Bitcoin Blockchain
Dec 07, 2015
This white paper studies the two major incentive mechanisms which provide for the security and immutability of the Bitcoin blockchain: block rewards and transaction fees. We examine the role such incentives play in providing the resilience of the Bitcoin blockchain to blockchain reorganization and denial of service attacks, and the sources of blockchain security in the context of emerging off-chain payment methods. Machine-to-machine / Internet of Things payments are also examined due to the enabling impact blockchain technology could have in organizing the decentralized economy. Lastly, we present a methodology for estimating the aggregate transaction fees over the Bitcoin network in the medium term based on existing and emerging Bitcoin applications.
We estimate incentives to notarize transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain at about $5 million daily by 2020 (which is five times more than the present value) and at $50–100 million daily by 2025. By 2020, transaction fees could constitute 50% or more of the notarial incentives due to increasing velocity of Bitcoin and the increased value secured with the Bitcoin blockchain; the amount of transaction fees as a percentage of total incentives could grow to 80–90% by 2025. The growth would be achieved due to both the increase in transaction fees and the growing Bitcoin exchange rate. With the stabilization of Bitcoin markets and the increasing role of transaction fees in notarial incentives, the role of the Bitcoin exchange rate is expected to diminish.
Public versus Private Blockchains
Oct 20, 2015
Blockchain-based solutions are one of the major areas of research for institutions, particularly in the financial and the government sectors. There is little disagreement that backbone technologies currently used in these sectors are outdated and need an overhaul to conform to the needs of the times. Distributed or decentralized ledgers in the form of blockchains are one of the most discussed potential solutions to the stated problem.
We provide a description of permissioned blockchain systems that could be used in creating secure ledgers or timestamped registries. We contend that the blockchain protocol and data should be accessible to end users to provide a higher level of decentralization and transparency and argue that proof of work could be effectively used in permissioned blockchains as a decentralized and auditable means of providing and diversifying security. We describe merged mining and blockchain anchoring concepts, which would be instrumental in implementing proof of work security for permissioned blockchains.
There is currently an ongoing debate whether the existing blockchain-based systems (such as Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies) can be utilized as is in proprietary contexts, and whether their openness and censorship resistance are fitting properties in this case. We provide arguments for the use of permissionless blockchains and open, standardized blockchain protocols in creating ledgers and registries, devoting particular attention to the Bitcoin blockchain as the most commercially successful and secure permissionless blockchain. We argue that many permissioned applications could be effectively implemented using existing technologies on top of existing permissionless blockchains:
Download full document:
Mathematical formalism for the voting process in Bitcoin ecosystem
Sep 13, 2015
We propose a mathematical formalism for the voting process in Bitcoin ecosystem. This formalism can be used to algorithmically determine the best value of a certain parameter (e.g., a block size limit) which will be considered appropriate by all voters. The proposed approach is aimed to clarify vagueness of some proposed voting processes that potentially allows a party with marginal voting power to dictate their conditions to the rest of the network. To solve the problem, we introduce a non-negative dissatisfaction function and minimize its value summed over all votes. The value of the block size limit (and, potentially, other parameters of the protocol) found this way will satisfy voters provided the dissatisfaction function is chosen appropriately.
Proof of Stake vs Proof of Work
Sep 11, 2015
Proof of stake is a consensus mechanism for digital currencies that is an alternative to proof of work used in Bitcoin. The main declared advantages of proof of stake approaches are the absence of expensive computations and hence a lower entry barrier for block generation rewards. In this white paper, we examine the pros and cons of both consensus systems and show that existing implementations of proof of stake are vulnerable to attacks which are highly unlikely in Bitcoin and proof of work approaches in general.
We consider several problems and possible attack vectors arising in proof of stake cryptocurrencies:
We estimate the cost of various types of attacks on proof of stake currencies and compare it with the cost of similar attacks on a proof of work currency. The cost of attacks on proof of stake is shown to be significantly lower.
We also consider delegated, or deposit-based, proof of stake consensus as an ongoing evolution of basic proof of stake. This version of proof of stake is more resistant to attacks and could potentially be a formidable opponent to proof of work, when it is sufficiently tested in practice and gains a foothold. On the other hand, just like basic proof of stake, delegated systems require a combination of algorithmic and social-driven security; the social component of proof of stake currencies could weaken their decentralization and mathematical soundness.
Want to join one of our initiatives?Contact us